Answer set – A known set of trace links derived prior to a tracing experiment, usually prepared by system experts.
Artifact – See trace artifact.
Artifact type – See trace artifact type.
Assisted traceability – See semi-automated traceability.
Assisted tracing – See semi-automated tracing.
Association – An as yet unspecified connection between a pair of artifacts. Where augmented with semantics providing directionality, the association becomes traversable and is referred to as a trace link.
Attribute – A characteristic or property inherent in or ascribed to something. See trace attribute.
Automated traceability – The potential for automated tracing.
Automated tracing – When traceability is established via automated techniques, methods and tools. Currently, the decision as to where to create and maintain trace links is automated.
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Backward traceability – The potential for backward tracing.
Backward tracing – In software and systems engineering contexts, the term is commonly used when the tracing follows antecedent steps in a developmental path, which is not necessarily a chronological path, such as backward from code through design to requirements. Note that the trace links themselves could be used in either a primary or reverse trace link direction, dependent on the specification of the participating traces.
Bidirectional traceability – The potential for bidirectional tracing.
Bidirectional trace link – A term used to refer to the fact that a trace link can be used in both a primary trace link direction and a reverse trace link direction.
Bidirectional tracing – When tracing can be undertaken in both a forward and backward direction.
Body of knowledge for traceability – See Traceability Body of Knowledge (TBOK).
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Candidate trace link – A potential, as yet unverified, trace link.
Center of Excellence for Software Traceability (CoEST) – A traceability community initiative. “Our goal is to bring together traceability researchers and experts in the field. We hope to encourage research collaborations, assemble a body of knowledge for traceability, and develop new technology to meet tracing needs.” (Hayes et al. 2007)
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Element – See trace element.
Establishing traceability – Enacting those parts of the traceability process associated with traceability planning, management, creation and maintenance.
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Forward traceability – The potential for forward tracing.
Forward tracing – In software and systems engineering contexts, the term is commonly used when the tracing follows subsequent steps in a developmental path, which is not necessarily a chronological path, such as forward from requirements through design to code. Note that the trace links themselves could be used in either a primary or reverse trace link direction, dependent on the specification of the participating traces.
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Golden standard requirements traceability matrix – See answer set.
Grand Challenge of Traceability – A fundamental problem with traceability that members of the international research and industrial communities agree deserves attention in order to achieve a revolutionary advance in traceability practice. It is a problem with no point solution; its solution involves first understanding and tackling a myriad of underlying challenges, and so will demand the effort of multiple research groups over an extended time period.
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Horizontal traceability – The potential for horizontal tracing.
Horizontal tracing – In software and systems engineering contexts, the term is commonly used when tracing artifacts at the same level of abstraction, such as: (i) traces between all the requirements created by ‘Mary’, (ii) traces between requirements that are concerned with the performance of the system, or (iii) traces between versions of a particular requirement at different moments in time. Horizontal tracing employs both forward tracing and backward tracing.
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Just in time tracing (JITT) – See reactive tracing.
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Link – See trace link.
Link base – See link set.
Link semantics – The purpose or meaning of the trace link. The link semantics are generally specified in the trace link type, which is a broader term that may also capture other details regarding the nature of the trace link.
Link set – The totality of the trace links on a project.
Link type – See trace link type.
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Manual traceability – The potential for manual tracing.
Manual tracing – When traceability is established by the activities of a human tracer. This includes traceability creation and maintenance using the drag and drop methods that are commonly found in current requirements management tools.
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Obsolete trace link - A pre-existing, and previously verified, trace link that is no longer valid.
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Post-requirements (specification) traceability – In software and systems engineering contexts, post-requirements traceability comprises those traces derived from or grounded in the requirements, and hence the traceability explicates the requirements’ deployment process.
Pre-requirements (specification) traceability – In software and systems engineering contexts, pre-requirements traceability comprises all those traces that show the derivation of the requirements from their original sources, and hence the traceability explicates the requirements’ production process.
Primary trace link direction – When a trace link is traversed from its specified source artifact to its specified target artifact, it is being used in the primary direction as specified. Where link semantics are provided, they provide for a way to ‘read’ the traversal (i.e., A implements B).
Proactive tracing – Initiating trace capture without explicit response to a stimulus to do so (i.e., traces are created in the background).
Prospective tracing – See trace capture.
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Reactive tracing* – Responding to a stimulus to initiate trace capture (i.e., traces are created on demand).
Reference set – See answer set.
Requirements management – The activity concerned with the effective control of information related to stakeholder, system and software requirements and, in particular, the preservation of the integrity of that information for the life of the system and with respect to changes in the system and its environment. Requirements management depends upon requirements traceability as its enabling mechanism.
Requirements management tools – Tools that support requirements management.
Requirements traceability – “The ability to describe and follow the life of a requirement in both a forwards and backwards direction (i.e., from its origins, through its development and specification, to its subsequent deployment and use, and through periods of ongoing refinement and iteration in any of these phases.” (Gotel and Finkelstein 1994)
Retrospective tracing – See trace recovery.
Reverse trace link direction – When a trace link is traversed from its specified target artifact to its specified source artifact, it is being used in the reverse direction to its specification. The link semantics may no longer be valid, so a change from active to passive voice (or vice-versa) is generally required (i.e., if A replaces B then B is replaced by A).
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Semi-automated traceability* – The potential for semi-automated tracing.
Semi-automated tracing* – When traceability is established via a combination of automated techniques, methods, tools and human activities. For example, automated techniques may suggest candidate trace links or suspect trace links and then the human tracer may be prompted to verify them.
Software traceability – See requirements traceability, extending the definition to encompass and interrelate any uniquely identifiable software engineering artifact to any other.
Source artifact* - The artifact from which a trace originates.
Stakeholder requirements for traceability – Stakeholder requirements for traceability comprise two parts: (i) why end-users (people, organizations, etc.) need traceability; and (ii) what tracers need in order to establish and use this traceability. The latter form part of the system requirements for traceability.
Suspect trace link – A pre-existing, and previously verified, trace link that may no longer be valid.
System requirements for traceability – What the traceability solution needs to do to fulfill the stakeholder requirements for traceability. Note that the agent that establishes the traceability is part of the traceability solution.
Systems traceability – See requirements traceability, extending the definition to encompass and interrelate any uniquely identifiable systems engineering artifact to a broad range of systems-level components, such as people, processes and hardware models.
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Target artifact* – The artifact at the destination of a trace.
Trace (Noun) – A specified triplet of elements comprising: a source artifact, a target artifact and a trace link associating the two artifacts. Where more than two artifacts are associated by a trace link, such as the aggregation of two artifacts linked to a third artifact, the aggregated artifacts are treated as a single artifact.
Trace (Verb) - The act of following a trace link from a source artifact to a target artifact (primary trace link direction) or vice-versa (reverse trace link direction).
Trace acquisition – See trace creation.
Trace artifact* - A traceable unit (e.g., a single requirement, a cluster of requirements, a UML class, a UML class operation, a Java class or even a person). A trace artifact is one of the trace elements and is qualified as either a source artifact or as a target artifact when it participates in a trace. The size of the traceable unit defines the granularity of the related trace.
Trace artifact type* – A label that characterizes those trace artifacts that have the same or a similar structure (syntax) and/or purpose (semantics). For example, requirements, design and test cases may be distinct artifact types.
Trace asset – See trace element.
Trace attribute* – Additional information (i.e., meta-data) that characterizes properties of the trace or of its individual trace elements, such as a date and time stamp of the trace’s creation or the trace link type.
Trace capture* – A particular approach to trace creation that implies the creation of trace links concurrently with the creation of the artifacts that they associate. These trace links may be created automatically or semi-automatically using tools.
Trace creation* – The activity of creating a single trace, associating two artifacts via a trace link. The trace links may be created manually, automatically using tools or semi-automatically using some combination of tool and manual input. The terms of trace capture, trace recovery and trace retrieval lend connotations as to when a trace link is created, along with the technique used to create the trace link in the case of trace retrieval.
Trace data – See trace element.
Trace element* – Used to refer to either one of the triplets comprising a trace: a source artifact, a target artifact or a trace link.
Trace generation – A particular approach to trace creation that implies that the trace links are created automatically or semi-automatically using tools.
Trace granularity - The level of detail at which a trace is recorded and performed. The granularity of a trace is defined by the granularity of the source artifact and the target artifact.
Trace lifecycle – A conceptual model that describes the series of activities involved in the life of a single trace, from initial conception, through creation, maintenance and use, through to eventual retirement. This is the traceability process from the perspective of a single trace flowing through the traceability process.
Trace link* – A specified association between a pair of artifacts, one comprising the source artifact and one comprising the target artifact. The trace link is one of the trace elements. It may or may not be annotated to include information such as the link type and other semantic attributes. This definition of trace link implies that the link has a primary trace link direction for tracing. In practice, every trace link can be traversed in two directions (i.e., if A tests B then B is tested by A), so the link also has a reverse trace link direction for tracing. The trace link is effectively bidirectional. Where no concept of directionality is given or implied, it is referred to solely to an association.
Trace link type* – A label that characterizes those trace links that have the same or similar structure (syntax) and/or purpose (semantics). For example, ‘implements’, ‘tests’, ‘refines’ and ‘replaces’ may be distinct trace link types.
Trace maintenance - Those activities associated with updating a single pre-existing trace in the face of trace evolution, and establishing new traces where needed, to keep the trace relevant and up to date.
Trace precision – A commonly used metric in automated tracing that applies to represent the fraction of retrieved trace links that are relevant. It is computed as: (Relevant Links Ç Retrieved Links) / Retrieved Links.
Trace quality – A measurable property of a single trace at a particular point in time on a project, such as a confidence score depicting its correctness.
Trace query – A term often used in the process of generating or vetting trace links, where one high level element is regarded as the trace query for which you are searching into the artifact collection to find the trace links (as distinguished from traceability-related queries).
Trace recall – A commonly used metric in automated tracing that applies to represent the fraction of relevant trace links that are retrieved. It is computed as: Recall = (Relevant links Ç Retrieved Links) / Relevant Links.
Trace record – Persistent information that registers the triplet of trace elements constituting a trace and is subject to version control. The trace record can also refer to the entire trace set.
Trace recovery* - A particular approach to trace creation that implies the creation of trace links after the artifacts that they associate have been generated and manipulated. These trace links may be created automatically or semi-automatically using tools. The term can be construed to infer that the trace link previously existed but now is lost.
Trace relation - All the trace links created between two sets of specified trace artifact types. The trace relation is the instantiation of the trace relationship and hence is a collection of traces. For example, the trace relation would be the actual trace links that associate the instances of requirements artifacts with the instances of test case artifacts on a project. The trace relation is commonly recorded within a traceability matrix.
Trace relationship – An abstract definition of a permissible trace relation on a project (i.e., source artifact type, target artifact type and trace link types), as typically expressed within a traceability information model (TIM). Note that the trace links of the instances of the two artifact types may not necessarily have the same trace link type.
Trace retrieval – A particular approach to trace creation where information retrieval methods are used to dynamically create a trace link. This approach can be used for both trace capture and trace recovery.
Trace set – The totality of the traces on a project.
Trace sink artifact - See target artifact.
Trace source artifact - See source artifact.
Trace target artifact – See target artifact.
Trace use – Those activities associated with putting a single trace to use to support various software and systems engineering activities and tasks.
Traceability – The potential for traces to be established and used. Traceability (i.e., trace ‘ability’) is thereby an attribute of an artifact or of a collection of artifacts. Where there is traceability, tracking can be undertaken and the specified artifacts should be traceable.
Traceability analyses – The analyses that can be undertaken following traceability-related queries.
Traceability benchmark - A standard measure or test against which approaches to various aspects of the traceability process can be evaluated and compared.
Traceability benchmark data – Datasets that contain two or more artifact types and validated traceability matrices that serve as reference sets for evaluating experimental results.
Traceability Body of Knowledge (TBOK)* – A proposed resource for the traceability community, containing traceability benchmarks, good traceability practices, traceability experience reports, etc.
Traceability challenge – A significant problem with traceability that members of the international research and industrial communities agree deserves attention in order to achieve advance in traceability practice.
Traceability community – Those people who are establishing and using traceability in practice, or have done so in the past or intend to do so in the future. Also, those people who are active in traceability research or in one of its many interrelated areas.
Traceability configuration management – The process of identifying, defining, recording and reporting on traces as configuration items, also controlling both the release of traces for traceability use and the changes that occur during traceability maintenance. Traceability configuration management depends upon traceability version control.
Traceability creation – The general activity of associating two (or more) artifacts, by providing trace links between them, for tracing purposes. Note that this could be done manually, automatically or semi-automatically, and additional annotations can be provided as desired to characterize attributes of the traces.
Traceability decay – The tendency for pre-existing traces to become outdated and/or obsolete over time as changes are made to the traced artifacts. This tends to result following ongoing traceability evolution.
Traceability-enabled activities and tasks – Those software and systems engineering activities and tasks that traceability supports, such as verification and validation, impact analysis and change management.
Traceability end-use – See traceability use.
Traceability end-user – The human or system engaged in traceability use.
Traceability entropy – The inevitable and steady deterioration of traceability as a result of traceability decay.
Traceability evolution - The tendency for pre-existing traces to become out of date over time as changes are made to the traced artifacts.
Traceability graph – A representation of the trace set, with trace artifacts depicted as nodes and trace links depicted as edges.
Traceability history – A record of the traceability evolution and the associated traceability maintenance that has taken place on a project.
Traceability information – Any traceability-related data, such as traceability information models, trace artifacts, trace links and other traceability work products.
Traceability information model (TIM)* - A graph defining the permissible trace artifact types, the permissible trace link types and the permissible trace relationships on a project, in order to address the anticipated traceability-related queries and traceability-enabled activities and tasks. The TIM is an abstract expression of the intended traceability for a project. The TIM may also capture additional information such as: the cardinality of trace artifacts associated through a trace link, the primary direction of the trace link, the purpose of the trace link, the location of the trace artifacts, the tracer responsible for creating and maintaining the trace link, etc.
Traceability intent – See traceability information model (TIM).
Traceability lifecycle – A conceptual model that describes the series of activities associated with a full end-to-end traceability process.
Traceability link – A term often used in place of trace link. Arguably, while traceability link captures the enabling role of the link for traceability purposes, trace link emphasizes the fact that the link is a primary element of a trace.
Traceability link document – A document depicting traces, showing which pairs of trace artifacts are associated via trace links.
Traceability maintenance - Those activities associated with updating pre-existing traces in the face of trace evolution, and establishing new traces where needed, to keep the traceability relevant and up to date.
Traceability management - Those activities associated with providing the control necessary to keep the stakeholder and system requirements for traceability and the traceability solution up to date during the life of a project. Traceability management is a fundamental part of traceability strategy.
Traceability matrix - A matrix recording the traces comprising a trace relation, showing which pairs of trace artifacts are associated via trace links.
Traceability meta-model – Defined constructs and rules related to the trace artifact types and trace link types for building traceability information models (TIMs).
Traceability method – A prescription of how to perform a collection of traceability practices, integrating traceability techniques with guidance as to their application and sequencing.
Traceability metric – A measure for some property or aspect of the traceability process, either quantitative or qualitative, such as trace recall and trace precision for trace recovery.
Traceability model – See traceability information model (TIM).
Traceability network – A traceability graph in which the directionality of the trace links is expressed (i.e., the artifacts are depicted as ordered pairs) and where the trace links are potentially weighted in some manner.
Traceability planning – Those activities associated with determining the stakeholder and system requirements for traceability and designing a suitable traceability solution. Traceability planning is a fundamental part of traceability strategy.
Traceability policy – Agreed principles and guidelines for establishing and using traceability.
Traceability practices – Those actions and activities associated with planning, managing, creating, maintaining and using traceability.
Traceability process – An instance of a traceability process model defining the particular series of activities to be employed to establish traceability and render it usable for a particular project, along with a description of the responsibilities and resourcing required to undertake them, as well as their inputs and outputs. The traceability process defines how to undertake traceability strategy, traceability creation, traceability maintenance and traceability use.
Traceability process improvement – The activity of defining, analyzing and improving upon an existing traceability process.
Traceability process model – An abstract description of the series of activities that serve to establish traceability and render it usable, along with a description of the typical responsibilities and resourcing required to undertake them, as well as their inputs and outputs. Distinctive steps of the process comprise traceability strategy, traceability creation, traceability maintenance and traceability use.
Traceability product – See traceability work products.
Traceability quality – A measurable property of the overall traceability at a particular point in time on a project, such as a confidence score depicting its overall correctness, accuracy, precision, completeness, consistency, timeliness, usefulness, etc.
Traceability quality assessment – The activity of assessing the traceability quality on a project.
Traceability quality assurance – The activity of assuring that defined standards and processes for traceability are appropriate and applied on a project.
Traceability quality attribute – A measurable property of a single trace link or a group of trace links, such as a confidence score depicting the likelihood that a recovered candidate trace link is correct or the usefulness of a particular trace link over time.
Traceability reference model - See traceability information model (TIM).
Traceability-related queries – Those questions that a software or systems engineer may pose to which traceability can help to retrieve answers, such as the percentage of the specified requirements that are traceable to test cases and the existence of any requirements that are not traced through to design artifacts.
Traceability scheme – See traceability information model (TIM).
Traceability solution* – The traceability information model (TIM) and traceability process, as defined, designed and implemented for a particular project situation, along with any associated traceability tooling. The traceability solution is determined as a core part of traceability strategy.
Traceability stakeholders – Those roles (i.e., people or systems) that have something to gain or something to lose from either having or not having traceability on a project.
Traceability standard – Mandatory practices and other conventions employed and enforced to prescribe a disciplined and uniform approach to traceability, generally written down and formed by consensus.
Traceability strategy - Those decisions made in order to determine the stakeholder and system requirements for traceability and to design a suitable traceability solution, and for providing the control necessary to keep these requirements and solutions relevant and effective during the life of a project. Traceability strategy comprises traceability planning and traceability management activities.
Traceability system – See traceability solution.
Traceability technique – A prescription of how to perform a single traceability practice, such as traceability creation, along with a description of how to represent its traceability work products.
Traceability tool – Any instrument or device that serves to assist or automate any part of the traceability process.
Traceability use* – Those activities associated with putting traces to use to support various software and systems engineering activities and tasks, such as verification and validation, impact analysis and change management.
Traceability version control – Tracking changes to a particular trace over time. Each time a trace is changed in some way, a new version of the trace is effectively generated. This provides for an audit trail, and for parallel development and rollback possibilities.
Traceability work products* – Those artifacts produced as a result of planning, managing, creating, maintaining and using traceability, including the trace set.
Traceable – The potential for artifacts to be accessed and retrieved by following trace links. Traceable (i.e., trace ‘able’) is thereby an attribute of an artifact or of a collection of artifacts.
Traced – The artifacts that have been accessed having followed trace links.
TraceLab – A visual experimental workbench for designing and executing traceability experiments, providing traceability researchers with access to algorithms, datasets, experimental frameworks and benchmarking tools. TraceLab is a major component of the Tracy project.
Tracer – The agent engaged in the activity of tracing, where the agent can be a human or supporting tool.
Tracing – The activity of either establishing or using traces.
Tracing benchmark – A clearly defined tracing task, with associated data sets and metrics that have been agreed upon by the traceability community, and which is used to evaluate different traceability techniques and methods comparatively.
Tracing contest – A clearly defined tracing task that has been identified by the traceability community as a critical traceability practice that warrants traceability benchmarking.
Tracing task – A discrete and identifiable unit of work associated with the broader activity of tracing; an atomic activity of the traceability process.
Tracking – In software and systems engineering contexts, the term commonly applies to the act or process of following requirements and depends upon requirements traceability.
Tracy project – A National Science Foundation funded project designed to instrument the traceability research community, and to develop tools for facilitating the transfer of technology to industry and government organizations (Cleland-Huang et al. 2011).
True requirements traceability matrix – See answer set.
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Using traceability – Enacting those parts of the traceability process associated with traceability use.
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Value-based traceability – An approach to traceability that actively seeks to create, manage and measure either the monetary worth or utility worth of traceability on a project.
Vertical traceability – The potential for vertical tracing.
Vertical tracing – In software and systems engineering contexts, the term is commonly used when tracing artifacts at differing levels of abstraction so as to accommodate lifecycle-wide or end-to-end traceability, such as from requirements to code. Vertical tracing employs both forward tracing and backward tracing.